PMR’s interviewing technique involves the interviewer having a direct interview with a respondent and recording the respondent’s answers either on paper or electronic questionnaire.
Interview types used in PMR research projects:
CATI (computer-assisted telephone interviewing)
CATI is a technique used mainly in quantitative research. It involves the use of specialised computer software to conduct telephone interviews. The interviewer asks questions one by one during the telephone conversation and ticks boxes on a questionnaire form or documents the responses. The answers are fed instantaneously into a central database.
CAWI (computer-assisted web interviewing)
CAWI is a surveying technique used in quantitative research projects. The survey is conducted using online questionnaires that are completed by respondents using a computer or any other device connected to the Internet. The answers are instantaneously recorded in a central database. The script used for posing successive questions monitors the logical consistency of the data collected. Questions are provided along with instructions for the interviewee. In comparison with many common interviewing techniques, the CAWI method enables research tasks to be conducted more quickly. In addition, user convenience is increased, thanks to the questionnaires being available at a time and place that suits the respondent. With the CAWI method, it is particularly important to define and construct the survey sample in such a way as to accurately represent the population described in the research.
CAPI (computer-assisted personal interviewing)
CAPI is a surveying technique used predominately in quantitative research. The respondent replies to the interviewer’s questions during a face-to-face interview, but questions and listed answers are displayed on a multimedia device screen (a laptop or palmtop). The technology used in this type of interview supports the monitoring of interview length and presentation of multimedia content.
PAPI (paper and pencil interview)
PAPI is a method used for quantitative research. The research is conducted using a paper questionnaire. The respondent answers questions posed to them during a face-to-face meeting or interview. Interviews can be conducted at the respondent’s home or workplace (in the case of B2B research) or in custom-designed environments created by the surveying company. Results obtained during the course of a PAPI interview are subsequently recorded (coded) in the form of statistical package files.
IDI (individual in-depth interview)
IDI is a type of interview technique used for the purposes of qualitative research. Individual in-depth interviews are detailed and thorough in nature. The interview’s objective is to obtain precise information about a given area, to delve into the information gathered, to clarify ambiguities and to expand the scope of the existing knowledge. During the interview the moderator uses an interview guide or a check-list containing the information that needs to be collected and asks successive investigative questions in order to understand the respondent’s perspective and their individual view of a given issue.